Evaluation of Ginger Oleoresin in Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
The present study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of ginger oleoresin against Carbontetrachloride induced liver toxic damage in rats. Rats were divided into six groups. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose (2ml/kg) of Carbontetrachloride in experimental rats. Post-treatment with Ginger oleoresin at 300 and 600mg/kg dose given by oral routewas carried out to find their protective effectsagainst carbontetrachloride induced hepatic injury. Biochemical parameterfor oxidative stress, inflammation and lipid profile along with genotoxicity and histological changes in rat serum and liver were studied. Silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective agent. Extracted oleoresin dose dependently provided hepatoprotective effects.The hepatoprotective action of ginger oleoresin may be related to its free radical scavenging,anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activity and concluded to be partly mediated by its active constituent’s 6-gingerol, shogaol and zingerone. -phospate; CCl3 *, Trichloromethyl free radical; CCl3 OO*, Trichloromethyl peroxy radical; ROS, Reactive oxygen species; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; NO, Nitric oxide, VLDL, Very low density lipoprotein.
 Aebi, H. (1974). Catalase in vítro. Methods Enzymol 2, 673–678.
 Al-Harbi, N. O. Imama, F. Nadeema, A. M. M. Al-Harbi, Iqbal, M. Ahmad S. F. (2014). Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rat is reversed by treatment with riboflavin. International Immunopharmacology. 21, 383–388.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2014.05.014
 Alkreathy, H. M. Khan, R. A. Khan, M. R. Sahreen, S. S. (2014). CCl4 induced genotoxicity and DNA oxidative damages in rats: hepatoprotective effect of Sonchus arvensis. BMC Complementary Altern Medi.14, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-1
 Alqasouami, S. Yusufolgu, H. Farraj, A. Alam, A. (2011). Effect of 6-Shogaol and 6-Gingerol on Diclofenac Sodium Indued Liver Injury. International Journal of Pharmacology 7, 868–873. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2011.868.873
 Al-Sayed, E. Martiskainen, O. Seif el-Din, H. S. AbdelNasser, A. Hammam, O. A. El-Lakkany, N. M. (2014). Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Bauhinia hookeri Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice and Characterization of Its Bioactive Compounds by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS. BioMed Research International 24, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/245171
 Andritoiu, C. V. Andritoiu, V. Cuciureanu, M. Nica-Badea, D. Bibire, N. Popa, M. (2014). Effect of apitherapy products against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Rom J Morphol Embryol 55, 835–847.
 Badger, D. A. Sauer, J. M. Hoglen, N. C. Jolley, C. S. Sipes, I. G. (1996). The role of inflammatory cells and cytochrome P450 in the potentiation of CCl4-induced liver injury by a single dose of retinol. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 141, 507–519 https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1996.0316
 Bandoniene, D. Gruzdiene, D. Venskutonis, P. R. Murkovic, M. (2002). Antioxidative activity of sage (Saliva officinale L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.) and borage (Borago officinalis L.) extracts in rapeseed oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 104, 286–292. https://doi.org/10.1002/1438-9312(200205)-104:5<286::AID-EJLT286>3.0.CO;2-O
 Basiglio, C. L. Pozzi, S. Mottino, E. J. Roma, M. G. (2009). Differential effects of silymarin and its active component silibinin on plasma membrane stability and hepatocellular lysis. Chem Biol Interact 179, 297–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2008.12.008
 Bataller, R. and Brenner, D. A. (2005). Liver fibrosis. J Clin Invest. 115, 209–18.
 Bellik, Y. Y. (2014). Total antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potency of the essential oil and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 4, 40–44.https://doi.org/10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60311-X
 Boll, M. Weber, L.W. Becker, E. Stampfl, A. (2001). Pathogenesis of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte injury. Bioactivation of CCl4 by cytochrome P450 and effects on lipid homeostasis. Z Naturforsch 56, 111–121. https://doi.org/10.1515/znc-2001-1-218
 Boll, M. Weber, L.W. D. Becker, E. Stampfl A., (2001a). Hepatocyte damage induced by carbon tetrachloride: inhibited lipoprotein secretion and changed lipoprotein composition. Z Naturforsch 56, 283–290. https://doi.org/10.1515/znc-2001-3-419
 Bose, P. D. Sarma, M. P. Medhi, S. Das, B. C. Sain, H. Kar, P. (2011). Role of polymorphic N-acetyl transferase2 and cytochrome P4502E1 gene in antituberculosis treatment-induced hepatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 26, 312–318. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.2010.06355.x
 Chakraborty, D. Mukherjee, M. Sikdar, S. Paul, A. Ghosh, S. Khuda-Bukhsh, A. R. (2012). Toxicol Lett 210, 34–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2012.01.002
 Deepa, K. I. Mandlikb, S. K. Naika, S. R. (2013). Models of hepatotoxicity and the underlying cellular, biochemical and immunological mechanism(s): A critical discussion. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology 37, 118–133.
 Deline, G. D. (1985). Ginger. Cereal Foods World 30, 697–699.
 Domenicali, M. Caraceni, P. Giannone, F. Baldassarre, M. Lucchetti, G. Quarta C. et al., (2009). A novel model of CCl4-induced cirrhosis with ascites in the mouse. J Hepatol 51, 991–999. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2009.09.008
 Dugasani, S. Pichika, M. R. Nadarajah, V. D. Balijepalli, M. K. Tandra, S. Korlakunta, J. N. (2010). Comparative Antioxidant and Anti–inflammatory Effects of –Gingerol, –Gingerol,  – Gingerol and –Shogaol. J Ethnopharmacol 127, 515–520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.004
 Fahmy, S. R. Hamdi, S. A. Abdel-Salam, H. A. (2009). Curative effect of dietary freshwater and marine crustacean extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 3, 2118–2129.
 Feng, Y. Siu, K. Y. Ye, X. Wang, N. Yuen, M. F. Leung, C. H. Tong, Y. Kobayashi, S. (2010). Hepatoprotective effects of berberine on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Chin Med 5, 33. https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-8546-5-33
 Ferlay, J. Shin, H. R. Bray, F. Forman, D. Mathers, C. Parkin, D. M. (2010). Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN. Int J Cancer. 127, 2893–2917.
 Flynn, D. L. Rafferty, M. F. Boctor, A. M. (1986). Inhibition of neutrophil 5-lipoxigenase activity by gingerdione, shogaol, capsaicin and related pungent compounds. Prostaglandin Leukot Med 24, 195–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/0262-1746(86)90126-5
 Girish, C. Pradhan, S. C. (2012). Hepatoprotective activities of picrolivcurcumin and ellagic acid compared to silymarin on carbontetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in mice. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 3, 149–155.
 Gonzalez, F. J. (1988). The molecular biology of cytochrome P450s. Pharmacol Rev 40, 243–288.
 Graupeara, M. Garcia-Pegan, J. C. Titos, E. Claria,J. Massaguer, A. Bosch, J. (2002). 5-lipoxigenase inhibiting reduces intrahepatic vascular resistance of cirrhotic rat liver: A possible role of cysteinylleukotrienes. Gastroenterol 122, 387–393. https://doi.org/10.1053/gast.2002.31040
 Green, L. C. Wagner, D. A. Glogowski, J. Skipper, P. L. Wishnok, J. S. Tannenbaum, S. R. (1982). Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [15N] nitrate in biological fluids. Anal Biochem 126, 131–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(82)90118-X
 Gumieniczek, A. (2005). Effects of repaglinide on oxidative stress in tissues of diabetic rabbits. Diab Res Clin Pract 68, 89–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2004.09.018
 Halliwell, B. Chirico, S. (1993). Lipid peroxidation: its mechanism, measurement, and significance. Am J Clin Nutr 57, 715–724. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/57.5.715S
 Harimurtia, N. Nhestriciab, N. Subardjo, S. Y. Yuliania, S. (2011). Effect of oleoresin concentration and composition of encapsulating materials on properties of the microencapsulated ginger oleoresin using spray drying method. Indonesian journal of agriculture 4, 33–39.
 Hemmings, S. J. Pulga, V. B. Tran, S.T. Uwiera, R. E.(2002). Cell Biochem Funct 20, 47–59. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbf.934
 Hikino, H. Kiso, Y. Kato, N. Hamada, Y. Shioirietal, T. (1985). Antihepatotoxic actions if gingerols and diarylheptanoids. J Ethanopharmacol 14, 31–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(85)90092-3
 Huang, J. He, B. Ban, X. (2012). J. Tian, L. Zhu, Y. Wang, J Ethnopharmacol 141, 104–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.006
 Huetal, R. (2012). 6-Shogaol induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vivo through endoplasmic reticulum stress. PLoS One 7, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046550
 Ippoushi, K. Ito, H. Horie, H. Azuma, K. (2005). Planta Med 71, 563–566. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-864160
 Jadon, A. Bhadauria, M. Shukla, S. (2007) J Ethnopharmacol 109, 214–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.07.033
 Janero, D. R. (1990). Malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid-reactivity as diagnostic indices of lipid peroxidation and peroxidative tissue injury. Free Radic Biol Med 9, 515–540. https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(90)90131-2
 Jollow, D. J. Mitchell, J. R. Zampaglione, N. Gillete, J. R. (1974). Pharmacology 11, 151–169. https://doi.org/10.1159/000136485
 Joseph, J. A. Ayyappan, U. P. Sasidharan, S. R. Mutyala, S. Goudar, K. S. Agarwal, A. (2014). Pharmacognosy Res 6, 320–325. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.138284
 Khan, R. A. Ahmed, D. (2009). . Protective effects of Digera muricata (L.) Mart. on testis against oxidative stress of carbon tetrachloride in rat. Food Chem Toxicol 47, 1393–1399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.03.020
 Khanna, A. K. Ansari, M. A. Kumar, M. Khanna, A. (2003). Correlation between AgNOR quantity in needle biopsy specimens of prostatic adenocarcinomas: correlation with proliferation state, Gleason score, clinical stage, and DNA content. Clin Mol Pathol 49, 209–213.
 Kim, S. H. Cheon, H. J. Yun, N. Oh, S. T. Shin, E. Shim, K. S. Lee, S. M. (2009). Protective effect of a mixture of Aloe vera and Silybum marianum against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity and liver fibrosis. J Pharm Sci 109, 119–127. https://doi.org/10.1254/jphs.08299FP
 Kobayashi, M. Yamamoto, M. (2006). Adv Enzyme Regul 42, 113–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advenzreg.2006.01.007
 Kumar, L. Chhibber, S. Harjai, K. (2014). Zingerone suppresses liver inflammation induced by antibiotic mediated endotoxemia through down regulating hepatic mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis mouse model. PLoS One 9, 1–8.
 Kyung, K. S. Gon, J. H. Geun, K. Y. Sup, J. J. Suk, W. J. Ho, K. J. (2006). 6-Shogaol, a natural product, reduces cell death and restores motor function in rat spinal cord injury. Eur J Neurosci. 24, 1042–52.
 Larson, A. M. Polson, J. Fontana, R. J. Davern, T. J. Lalani, E. Hynan L. S. et al., (2005). Acetaminopheninduced acute liver failure: results of a United States multicenter, prospective study. Hepatology 42, 1364–1372. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.20948
 Leist, M. Gantner, F. Jilg, S. Wendel, A. (1995) J Immunol 154,1307–1316.
 Li, J. Billiar, T. R. (1999). Am J Physiol 276, G1069–1073. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.1999.276.5.C1069
 Lieber, C. S. Leo, M. A. Cao, Q. Ren, C. DeCarli, L. M. (2003). Silymarin retards the progression of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis in baboons. J Clin Gastroenterol 37, 336–339. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004836-200310000-00013.
 Luper, S. (1998). A review of plants used in the treatment of liver disease: Part 1. Altern Med Rev 3, 410–421.
 Manibusan, M. K. Odin, M. Eastmond, D. A. (2007). Postulated carbon tetrachloride mode of action: a review. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 25, 185–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/10590500701569398
 Maritim, A. C. Sanders, R. A. Watkins, J. B. (2003). Effects of lipoic acid on biomarkers of oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Nutr Biochem 14, 288–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(03)00036-6
 Mascolo, N. Jain, R. Jain, S. C. Capasso, F. (1989) J Ethnopharmacol 27, 129–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(89)90085-8
 Misra, H. P. Fridovich, I. (1972). J Biol Chem 247, 3170–3175.
 Mohamed, N. Z. Abd-Alla, H. I. Hanan, F. A. Mantawy, M. Ibrahim, N. Hassan, S. A. (2014). CCl4-induced hepatonephrotoxicity: protective effect of nutraceuticals on inflammatory factors and antioxidative status in rat. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2, 87–100.
 Mohamed, N. Z. Abd-Alla, H. I. Hanan, F. A. Mantawy, M. Ibrahim, N. Hassan, S. A. (2014). Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2, 87–100.
 Moreira, P. R. Maioli, M. A. Medeiros, H. C. Guelfi,M. Pereira, F. T. Mingatto, F. E. (2014). Biological Research 13, 47–49.
 Morio, L. A. Chiu, H. Sprowles, K. A. Zhou, P. Heck, D. E. Gordon, M. K. (2001). Laskin Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 172, 44–51. https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.2000.9133
 Nevin, K. G. Vijayammal, P. L. (2005). Fitoterapia 74, 578–580. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(03)00148-5
 Nicotera, P. Bellomo, G. Orrenius, S. (1990). The role of Ca2+in cell killing. Chem Res Toxicol 3, 484–494. https://doi.org/10.1021/tx00018a001
 Ohkawa, H. Ohishi, N. Yagi, K.(1979). Anal Biochem 95, 351–358.
 Pan, M. H. Hsieh, M. C. Kuo, J. M. Lai, C. S. Wu, H. Sang, S. (2008). Mol Nutr Food Res 52, 527–537. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700157
 Pradhan, S. C. Girish, C. (2006). Hepatoprotective herbal drug, silymarin from experimental pharmacology to clinical medicine. Indian J Med Res 124, 491–504.
 Proctor, P. H. McGinness, E. (1986). The function of melanin. Arch Dermatol. Arch Dermatol 122, 507–508. https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1986.01660170031013
 Rajesh, M. G. and Latha M. S. (2004). Preliminary evaluation of the anti hepatotoxic activity of Kamilari, apoly herbal formulation. Preliminary evaluation of the antihepatotoxic activity of Kamilari, a poly herbal formulation. J Ethnopharmacol. 91, 99–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2003.12.011
 Ramanathan, M. Babu, C. S. Justin, A. Shanthakumari, S. (2012). J Exp Biol 50, 391–397.
 Recknagel, R. O. Glende, E. A. Dolak J. A. JA, R. L. Waller, R. L. (1989). Mechanisms of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Pharmacol Ther 43, 139–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-7258(89)90050-8
 Reddy, A. C. Lokesh, B. R. (1992). Studies on spice principles as antioxidants in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Mol Cell Biochem 111, 117–124.
 Rip, J.W. Rupar, C. A. Ravi, K. Carroll, K. K. (1985). Distribution, metabolism and function of dolichol and polyprenols. Prog Lipid Res 24, 269–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-7827(85)90008-6
 Sabina, E. P. Pragasam, S. J. Kumar, S. Rasool, M. (2011). 6-gingerol, an active ingredient of ginger, protects acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. J Chin Integr Med 9, 1264–1269. https://doi.org/10.3736/jcim20111116
 Sai, K. Tyson, C. A. Thomas, D. W. Dabbs, J. E. Hasegawa, R. Kurokawa, Y. (1994). Cancer Lett 87, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3835(94)90402-2
 Salihu, M. Ajayi, B. O. Adedara, I. A. Farombi, E. O. (2016). 6-Gingerol-Rich Fraction from Zingiber officinale Prevents Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Kidney and Liver of Rats Exposed to Carbendazim. Journal of Dietary Supplements 1, 1–16.
 Shin, S. G. Kim, J. Y. Chung, H. Y. Jeong, J. C. (2005). Zingerone as an antioxidant against peroxynitrite. J Agric Food Chem 53, 7617–7622. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051014x
 Siddaraju, M. N. Dharmesh, S. M. (2007). Mol Nutr Food Res 51, 324–332. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200600202
 Singh, A. B. Singh, N. Maurya, R. Srivastava, A. K. (2009). Anti-hyperglycaemic, lipid lowering and antioxidant properties of -gingerol in db/db mice. Int J Med Sci 1, 536–544.
 Singh, G. Maurya, S. Catalan, C. de Lampasona, M. P. (2005). Studies on essential oils, Part 42: chemical, antifungal, antioxidant and sprout suppressant studies on ginger essential oil and its oleoresin. Flavour Fragr J 20, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1373
 Skottova N., Krecman, V. Simanek, V. (1999). Activities of silymarin and its flavonolignans upon low density lipoprotein oxidizability in vitro. Phytother Res 13, 535–537. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199909)-13:6<535::AID-PTR526>3.0.CO;2-W
 Skrzydlewska, E. Farbiszewski, R. (1997). Antioxidant status of liver, erythrocytes, and blood serum of rats in acute methanol intoxication. Alcohol 14, 431–437. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0741-8329(96)00149-8
 Suresh, S.V. Mishra, S.H. (2008). Indian J Exp Biol 46, 447–452.
 Suzek, H. Celik, I. Dogan, A. Yildirim, S. (2015). Protective effect and antioxidant role of sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) oil against carbontetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Informa Healthcare 22, 1–7.
 Tadeusz, J. Teresa, J. Krzysztof, N. (2001). The role of polyprenol in modulation of physical properties of model membranes. Curr Top Biophys 25, 33–38.
 Tanaka, Y. Hanada, K. Mizokami, M. Yeom A. E. Shih, J. W. Gojobori, T. Alter, H. J. Taniyama, Y. Griendling, K. K. (2003). Reactive oxygen species in the vasculature: molecular and cellular mechanisms. Hypertension. 42, 1075–1081. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000100443.09293.4F
 Titos, E., Claria, J. Planguma, A. Lopez-Parra, M. Gonzalez-Periz, A. (2005). Inhibition of 5-lipoxigenase activating protein abrogates experimental liver injury: Role of Kupffer cells. J Leukocyte Biol 78, 871–878. https://doi.org/10.1189/jlb.1204747
 Trere, D. (2000). Micron 31, 127–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-4328(99)00069-4
 Trere, D. Zilbering, A. Dittus, D. Kim, P. Ginsberg, P. C. Daskal, I. (1996). Clin Mol Pathol 49, M209–213. https://doi.org/10.1136/mp.49.4.M209
 Tzeng,T. F. Liou, S. S. Chang, C. J. Liu, I. M. (2015). 6-Gingerol Protects against Nutritional Steatohepatitis by Regulating Key Genes Related to Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism. Nutrients 7, 999–1020. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7020999
 Vaca, C. E. Wilhelm, J. M. Harms-Rihsdahl, M. (1988). Interaction of lipid peroxidation product with DNA. Mutat Res Rev Gen Toxicol 195, 137–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1110(88)90022-X
 Verma, S. K. Singh, J. Khamesra, R. Bordia, A. (1993). Effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in man. Indian J Med Res 98, 240–242.
 Webb, C. Twedt, D. (2008). Oxidative stress and liver disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 38, 125–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2007.10.001
 Weber, L. W. Boll, M. Stampfl, A. (2003). Hepatotoxicity and mechanism of action of haloalkanes: carbon tetrachloride as a toxicological model. Crit Rev Toxicol 33, 105–136. https://doi.org/10.1080/713611034
 Williams, A.T. Burk, R. F. (1990). Carbontetrachloride hepatotoxicity: an example of free radical-mediated injury. Semin Liver Dis 10, 279–284. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1040483
 Young, H.Y. Luo, Y. L. Cheng, H. Y. Hsieh, W. C. Liao, J. C. Peng, W. H. (2005). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of -gingerol. J Ethnopharmacol 96, 207–210.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.009
 Zhou, D. Ruan, J. Cai, Y. Xiong, Z. Fu, W. Wei, A. (2010). Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of Arachniodeexilis (Hance) Ching. J Ethnopharmacol 129, 232–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.03.016
 Zhu, R. Wang, Y. Zhang, L. Guo, Q. (2012). Oxidative stress and liver disease. Hepatol Res. Hepatol Res 42, 741–749. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1872-034X.2012.00996.x
Copyright (c) 2018 Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research and Management
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Chitkara University Publications for the Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research And Management (J. Pharm. Technol. Res. Manag.) protects author rights e.g., the results, analysis, methodology of Theoretical calculations or experiment. The copyright transfer form with open access policy under the creative common licenses of journal provides all rights specifically to the author (s); except to sell, distribution of the material in any form to any third party. Also, the authors are encouraged to submit the author’s copy of the accepted paper to an appropriate archive e.g. arxive.org and/or in their institution’s repositories, or on their personal website also.
Authors should mention reference of Chitkara University Publication and DOI number of the publication carefully on the required page of depository, in all above mentioned cases. The copyright and license policy of Chitkara University Publications not only protect the authors rights but also protect the integrity and authenticity of the scientific records and takes very seriously about the plagiarism, fraud or ethics disputes.
Articles in Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research And Management (J. Pharm. Technol. Res. Manag.) by Chitkara University Publications are Open Access articles that are published with licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- CC-BY 4.0 International License. Based on a work at https://jptrm.chitkara.edu.in. This license permits one to use, remix, tweak and reproduction in any medium, even commercially provided one give credit for the original creation.
View Legal Code of the above mentioned license, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
View Licence Deed here https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
|Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research And Management by Chitkara University Publications is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://jptrm.chitkara.edu.in