Pharmaceutical Applications of Xanthan Gum in Ophthalmic Delivery Systems


  • Shiveena Bhatia Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Rajpura, Punjab-140401, India
  • Tarun Kumar Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Rajpura, Punjab-140401, India
  • Sonali Batra Deparment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana-125001, India
  • Sumit Sharma Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Rajpura, Punjab-140401, India



Xanthan gum, Mucoadhesive, Chemical modification, Biodegradable, Viscosifier


Introduction: Ophthalmic delivery system is one of the challenging domains of formulation and development due to tear dilutions, drug loss due to lacrimal drainage, limited volume and pre-corneal barriers. Several pharmaceutical technologies are exploited in order to counter the challenges posed by ocular route such as emulsions and suspensions. But all these technologies have stability issues which lead to their limited use.
Background: Among polysaccharides, xanthan gum, a natural occurring biodegradable exopolysaccharide extracted from bacterium Xanthomonas campestris is widely accepted as one of the potential polysaccharide in ophthalmic delivery systems.
Review Results: Xanthan gum is commonly used as an additive to various ophthalmic formulations due to its mucoadhesive property and imparting stability to various novel pharmaceutical technologies for ophthalmic. Xanthan gum also allows chemical modifications with various ligands which consequently allow controlled release, modified dissolution rate and viscoelasticity.
Conclusion: In this review we are providing an insight over potential of pharmaceutical applications of xanthan gum. Also, we have discussed the scope of chemical modifications in xanthan gum with modified physicochemical properties.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Ahmed, V.A., & Goli, D. (2018). Development and Characterization of In Situ Gel of Xanthan Gum for Ophthalmic Formulation Containing Brimonidine Tartrate. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 11(7), 277-284.

Ahuja, M., Kumar, A., & Singh, K. (2012). Synthesis, characterization and in vitro release behavior of carboxymethyl xanthan. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 51(5), 1086-1090.

Badwaik, H.R., Giri, T.K., Nakhate, K.T., Kashyap, P., & Tripathi, D. K. (2013). Xanthan gum and its derivatives as a potential bio-polymeric carrier for drug delivery system. Current Drug Delivery, 10(5), 587-600.

Badwaik, H.R., Sakure, K., Alexander, A., Ajazuddin, Dhongade, A.H., & Tripathi, D.K. (2016). Synthesis and characterisation of poly(acryalamide) grafted carboxymethyl xanthan gum copolymer. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 85, 361-369.

Bhowmik, M., Kumari, P., Sarkar, G., Bain, M., Bhowmick, B., Mollick, M., . . . Chattopadhyay, D. (2013). Effect of xanthan gum and guar gum on in situ gelling ophthalmic drug delivery system based on poloxamer-407. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 62, 117-123.

Brunchi, C.-E., Avadanei, M., Bercea, M., & Morariu, S. (2019). Chain conformation of xanthan in solution as influenced by temperature and salt addition. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 287, 111008.

Bueno, V.B., Bentini, R., Catalani, L.H., & Petri, D.F.S. (2013). Synthesis and swelling behavior of xanthan-based hydrogels. Carbohydrate Polymers, 92(2), 1091-1099.

Céline, F., Comesse, S., Renou, F., & Grisel, M. (2018). Hydrophobically modified xanthan: Thickening and surface active agent for highly stable oil in water emulsions. Carbohydrate Polymers, 205, 362-370.

Ceulemans, J., Vinckier, I., & Ludwig, A. (2002). The Use of Xanthan Gum in An Ophthalmic Liquid Dosage Form: Rheological Characterization of the Interaction With Mucin. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 91(4), 1117-1127.

Dário, A.F., Hortêncio, L.M.A., Sierakowski, M.R., Neto, J.C.Q., & Petri, D.F.S. (2011). The effect of calcium salts on the viscosity and adsorption behavior of xanthan. Carbohydrate Polymers, 84(1), 669-676.

Hajikhani, M., Khanghahi, M.M., Shahrousvand, M., Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, J., Babaei, A., & Khademi, S.M.H. (2019). Intelligent superabsorbents based on a xanthan gum/poly (acrylic acid) semi-interpenetrating polymer network for application in drug delivery systems. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 139, 509-520.

Hamcerencu, M., Popa, M., Riess, G., & Desbrieres, J. (2019). Chemically modified xanthan and gellan to prepare biomaterials for ophthalmic applications. Polymer International, 69(11), 1051-1057.

Krstonošić, V., Dokic, L., Dokic, P., & Dapčević, T. (2009). Effects of xanthan gum on physicochemical properties and stability of corn oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(8), 2212-2218.

Kulkarni, R.V., Inamdar, S.Z., Das, K.K., & Biradar, M.S. (2019). 7 - Polysaccharide-based stimuli-sensitive graft copolymers for drug delivery. In S. Maiti & S. Jana (Eds.), Polysaccharide Carriers for Drug Delivery (pp.155-177). Woodhead Publishing.

Lallemand, F., Felt-Baeyens, O., Besseghir, K., Behar-Cohen, F., & Gurny, R. (2003). Cyclosporine A delivery to the eye: A pharmaceutical challenge. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 56(3), 307-318.

Mann, A., Campbell, D., & Tighe, B.J. (2016). 2 - The ageing ocular surface: Challenges for biomaterials design and function. In T.V. Chirila & D.G. Harkin (Eds.), Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine in Ophthalmology (2nd Edition, pp.17-43). Woodhead Publishing.

Morsi, N., Ibrahim, M., Refai, H., & El Sorogy, H. (2017). Nanoemulsion-based electrolyte triggered in situ gel for ocular delivery of acetazolamide. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 104, 302-314.

Rosalam, S., & England, R. (2006). Review of xanthan gum production from unmodified starches by Xanthomonas comprestris sp. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 39(2), 197-207.

Sharma, S., & Batra, S. (2019). Recent advances of chitosan composites in artificial skin: the next era for potential biomedical application. In A.-M. Holban & A.M. Grumezescu (Eds.), Materials for Biomedical Engineering (pp.97-119): Elsevier.

Sharma, S., Sinha, V., Sarwal, A., & Shukla, R. (2018). Chitosan-Based Nanocarriers: A Promising Delivery System for Bioactives. NanoAgroceuticals & NanoPhytoChemicals (pp. 265-276). CRC Press.

Simon Benita, & Nassar, T. (2016). US20190209466A1.

Su, L., Ji, W.K., Lan, W.Z., & Dong, X.Q. (2003). Chemical modification of xanthan gum to increase dissolution rate. Carbohydrate Polymers, 53(4), 497–499.

Sumit, S., Shikha, L., & Rayasa, M. (2012). Potential of chitosan for nose to brain drug delivery. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 16(1), 47-55.

Zatz, J.L., & Knapp, S. (1984). Viscosity of Xanthan Gum Solutions at Low Shear Rates. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 73(4), 468-471.




How to Cite

Bhatia, S. ., Kumar, T., Batra, S. ., & Sharma, S. (2020). Pharmaceutical Applications of Xanthan Gum in Ophthalmic Delivery Systems. Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research and Management, 8(1), 15–22.