J. Pharm. Technol. Res. Manag.

Traditional and Novel Herbal Drugs Emerging as Potent Novel Combinations for Managing Morbidities by Pharmacological and Mechanistic Studies

Tapan Behl, Chanchal Kumar, Roshan Kumar Singh, Taruna Katyal Arora and Sandeep Arora

  • Download PDF
  • DOI Number
    https://doi.org/10.15415/jptrm.2018.61004
KEYWORDS

Herbal plants; Withania somnifera; Alium sativum; Curcuma longa; Azadirachta indica

PUBLISHED DATE May 2018
PUBLISHER The Author(s) 2018. This article is published with open access at www.chitkara.edu.in/publications
ABSTRACT

Background: Herbal drugs are used in treatment of diseases since decades. Major contributing factor for their use is easy availability, less expensive and more belief of common population because of relatively less side effects compared to allopathic medicines. Medicines of natural origin or functional foods in the prevention of disease are the need of hour. Hence, the present review focused on activity of four drugs viz. Withania somnifera,Allium sativum,Curcuma longa andAzadirachta indica and role in different clinical complications.

Methods: A thorough review of all the articles, research as well as reviews available regarding the concerned topic was performed. MEDLINE database was searched and English language articles were preferably selected.

Results: Withania somnifera, Allium sativum, Curcuma longa andAzadirachta indicahave shown alleviation in inflammation, diabetes and cancer states. The herbal drugs have shown beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of these disorders.

Conclusion from these facts: Utilizing this concept, it can be assumed that herbal drugs play an intricate role in safeguarding the health of individuals from life-threatening complications. However, validation and reproducibility of results in clinical trails should be there in order to confirm the safety and efficacy of these herbal drugs.

Page(s) 31–53
URL http://dspace.chitkara.edu.in/jspui/bitstream/123456789/721/1/JPTRM_4_Behl.pdf
ISSN Print : 2321-2217, Online : 2321-2225
DOI https://doi.org/10.15415/jptrm.2018.61004
REFERENCES
  • Abiy, E., Berhe, A. (2016) Anti-Bacterial Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from Patients Attending Hawassa Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Treatment,2, 2. https://doi.org/10.21767/2472-1093.100023
  • Agita A, Alsagaff MT. (2017) Inflammation, Immunity, and Hypertension. Acta Med Indones,49,158-165. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.163576
  • Akter, R., Mahabub-Uz-Zaman, M., Rahman, MS., Khatun, MA, Abdullah AM, Ahmed, NU., Islam, F. (2013) Comparative studies on antidiabetic effect with phytochemical screening of Azadirachta indicia and Andrographis paniculata. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 5, 122–128. e-ISSN: 2278–3008.
  • Akuri, M. C., Barbalho, S. M., Val, R. M., & Guiguer, E. L. (2017). Reflections about Osteoarthritis and Curcuma longa. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 11, 8–12. https://doi.org/10.4103/phrev.phrev_54_16
  • Andallu, B., Radhika, B. (2000) Hypoglycemic, diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withania somnifaria, Dunal) root. Indian Jour Exp Bio, 38, 607–609. PMID: 11116534.
  • Aneesh, T., Hisham, M., Sekhar, M., Madhu, M., Deepa, T. (2009) International market scenario of traditional Indian herbal drugs-India declining. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 3, 184–190. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-8258.5627
  • Anjali, K., Ritesh, K., Sudarshan, M., Jaipal, S. C., Kumar, S. (2013) Antifungal efficacy of aqueous extracts of neem cake, karanj cake and vermicompost against some phytopathogenic fungi. The Bioscan, 8, 671–674.
  • Anushka, S., Rajendran, P., Vedha, V., Ashok, G., Kannan M., and Karthikeyan, M. (2011) A study on the anti-viral properties of Azadirachta indica (A.Juss, Neem) against HBV, HIV, HSV-I, Vaccinia and Varicella zoster viruses and Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr, Tree turmeric) against HBV and HIV. Biomedicine, 31, 482–486.
  • Badam, L., Joshi, SP., Bedekar, SS. (1999) In vitro’ antiviral activity of neem (Azadirachta indica. A. Juss) leaf extract against group B Coxsackieviruses. J Commun Dis, 31, 79–90. PMID: 10810594
  • Banerjee, S. K., Mukherjee, P. K., Maulik, S. K. (2003) Garlic as an antioxidant: the good, the bad and the ugly. Phytotherapy Research, 17, 97–106. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1281
  • Barbara, G., Stanghellini, V., De Giorgio, R., Cremon, C., Cottrell, GS., Santini, D., Pasquinelli, G., Morselli-Labate, AM., Grady, EF., Bunnett, NW., et al. (2004) Activated mast cells in proximity to colonic nerves correlate with abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology,126, 693–702. PMID: 14988823
  • Benavides, G. A., Squadrito, G. L., Mills, R. W., Patel, H. D., Isbell, T. S., Patel, R. P., DarleyUsmar, V. M., Doeller, J. E., Kraus, D. W. (2007) Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic. PNAS, 104, 17977–17982. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0705710104
  • Bhattacharya, S. K., Muruganandam, A. V. (2003) Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: an experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 75, 547–55. PMID: 12895672
  • Borek, C. (2006) Garlic reduces dementia and heart-disease risk. J. Nutr,136, 810–812. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.3.810S
  • Cancer Research UK. (2018) http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/health-professional/cancer-statistics/ worldwide-cancer
  • Cerella, C., Dicato, M., Jacob, C., Diederich, M. (2011) Chemical properties and mechanisms determining the anti-cancer action of garlic-derived organic sulfur compounds. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Anti-Cancer Agents), 11, 267–71. https://doi.org/10.2174/187152011795347522
  • Chatterjee, A., Pakrashi, S. C. (1995) The Treatise on Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi, Publication and Information Directorate, 4, 208–212. http://www.niscair.res.in/ActivitiesandServices/Products/products.htm
  • Chopra, I. C., Gupta, K. C., Nazir, B. N. (1952) Preliminary study of antibacterial substances from Melia azidirachta. Indian. J Med Res, 40, 511–515. PMID: 13061059
  • Chung, L. Y. (2006). The antioxidant properties of garlic compounds: allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl disulfide. J Med Food, 9, 205–13. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2006.9.205.
  • Daka, D. (2011) Antibacterial effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on Staphyloccus aureus: An in vitro study. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 666–669. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB09.553
  • Das, K. K., Das, S. N., and Dasgupta, S. (2001) The influence of ascorbic acid on nickel induced hepatic lipid peroxidation in rats. J. Basic Clin. Physiol Pharmacol,12, 187–194. PMID: 11762690
  • Debella, A. (2004) Procedures in preparation of Medicine from plants. Aartistic Printing Press, Addis Ababa.
  • Eidi, A., Eidi, M., Esmaeili, E. (2006) Antidiabetic effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine, 13, 624–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2005.09.010
  • Eltaweel, M. A. (2014) Antibacterial Effect of Garlic (Allium Sativum) On Staphyloccus Aureus: An In Vitro Study. In International Conference on Advances in Environment, Agriculture & Medical Sciences (ICAEAM’14).
  • Gannon, J. M., Forrest, P. E. Roy, Chengappa, K. N. (2014) Subtle changes in thyroid indices during a placebo-controlled study of an extract of Withania somnifera in persons with bipolar disorder. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 5, 241–245. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-9476.146566
  • Gauttam, V. K., Kalia, A. N. (2013) Development of polyherbal antidiabetic formulation encapsulated in the phospholipids vesicle system. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research, 4, 108–117. https://doi.org/10.4103/2231-4040.111527
  • Gbotolorun, S., Osinubi, A., Noronha, C., & Okanlawon, A. (2008) Antifertility potential of Neem flower extract on adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. African Health Sciences, 8, 168–173.PMID: 19357745
  • Ghonmode, W. N., Balsaraf, O. D., Tambe, V. H., Saujanya, K. P., Patil, A. K., Kakde, D. D. (2013) Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis—an in vitro study. Journal of International Oral Health, 5, 61–66.PMID: 24453446
  • Ghorbani, Z., Hekmatdoost, A., Mirmiran, P. (2014) Anti-hyperglycemic and insulin sensitizer effects of turmeric and its principle constituent curcumin. International journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 12, e18081. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijem.18081
  • Goel, A., Aggarwal, B. B. (2010) Curcumin, the golden spice from Indian saffron, is a chemosensitizer and radiosensitizer for tumors and chemoprotector and radioprotector for normal organs. Nutrition and Cancer, 62, 919–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2010.509835
  • Gorelick, J., Rosenberg, R., Smotrich, A., Hanus, L., Bernstein, N. (2015) Hypoglycemic activity of withanolides and elicitated Withania somnifera. Phytochemistry,116, 283–289. https://doi.org/.10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.02.029
  • Govindachari, T.R., Suresh, G., Gopalakrishnan, G., Banumathy, B., Masilamani, S. (1998) Identification of antifungal compounds from the seed oil of Azadirachta indica . Phytoparasitica, 26, 109–116. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02980677
  • Grandhi, A., Mujumdar, A.M., Patwardhan, B.A. (1994) Comparative pharmacological investigation of Ashwagandha and Ginseng. J Ethnopharmacol, 44, 131–135.PMID: 7898119
  • Gupta, A., Singh, S. (2014) Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Withania somniferaroot on collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Pharm Biol, 52, 308–20. https://doi.org10.3109/13880209.2013.835325
  • Gupta, S. C., Reuter, S., Phromnoi, K., Park, B., Hema, P. S., Nair, M., Aggarwal, B. B. (2011) Nimbolide sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL through reactive oxygen species-and ERK-dependent up-regulation of death receptors, p53, and Bax. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286, 1134–46. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.191379
  • Hendrick, V., Altshuler, L., Whybrow, P. (1998) Psychoneuroendocrinology of mood disorders: The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Psychiatr Clin North Am, 21, 277–92. PMID: 9670226
  • Henrotin, Y., Priem, F., & Mobasheri, A. (2013). Curcumin: a new paradigm and therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of osteoarthritis: curcumin for osteoarthritis management. SpringerPlus, 2, 56. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-56
  • Hodge, G., Hodge, S., Han, P. (2002) Allium sativum (garlic) suppresses leukocyte inflammatory cytokine production in vitro: potential therapeutic use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Cytometry, 48, 209–215. https://doi.org/10.1002/cyto.10133
  • Horníčková, J., Kubec, R., Cejpek, K., Velíšek, J., Ovesná, J., Stavělíková, H. (2010) Profiles of S-alk (en) ylcysteine sulfoxides in various garlic genotypes. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 28, 298–308. https://doi.org/20103329663
  • IDF. (2018) https://www.idf.org/our-activities/congress/hyderabad-2018.html
  • Islam, M. S., Kusumoto, Y., Al-Mamun, M. A. (2011) Cytotoxicity and cancer (HeLa) cell killing efficacy of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract. Journal of Scientific Research, 3, 375–382. https://doi.org/210.3329/jsr.v3i2.6557
  • Jackson, R., McNeil, B., Taylor, C., Holl, G., Ruff, D., Gwebu, E. T. (2002) Effect of aged garlic extract n casepase-3 activity in vitro. Nutritional Neuroscience, 5, 287–290. https://doi.org/10.1080/10284150290032012
  • Jalil, A., Ashfaq, U. A., Shahzadi, S., Javed, M. R., Rasul, I., Rehman, S. U., Shah, M., Masoud, M. S. (2013) Screening and design of anti-diabetic compounds sourced from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica). Bioinformation, 9, 1031–1035. https://doi.org/10.6026/97320630091031
  • Janan, M., Sakih, Alaa, T., Monawer, Ismaeil, M., Abdulikhar. (2016) Antibacterial activity of garlic against multidrug resistance Staphylococcus Aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. In Duhok City Journal of University of Duhok.Pure and Eng. Sciences, 19, 114–122.
  • Jang, G.H., Ha, J.H., Huh, T.L., and Lee, Y.M. (2008) Effect of proton beam on blood vessel formation in early developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Archives of Pharmacal Research, 31, 779–785. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12272-001-1226-1
  • Julie, S., Jurenka, M. T. (2009) Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent. Altern Med Rev, 14, 141–53. PMID: 19594223
  • Kalinowska, A., Orlińska, B., Panasiuk, M., Jamiołkowska, M., Zasim, A., Florys, B., Wojtkielewicz, K., Łuczyński, W., Głowińska-Olszewska, B., Bossowski, A. (2017) Assessment of preservation of beta-cell function in children with long-standing type 1 diabetes with “ultrasensitive c-peptide” method. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab, 23, 130–138. https://doi.org/10.18544/pedm-23.03.0084
  • Kalogeris, T., Baines, C. P., Krenz, M., Korthuis, R. J. (2012) Cell Biology of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. International review of cell and molecular biology,298, 229-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-394309-5.00006-7
  • Khajehdehi, P. (2012) Turmeric: Reemerging of a neglected Asian traditional remedy.J Nephropathol,1, 17–22. https://doi.org/10.5812/jnp.5
  • Koley, K. M., Lal, J. (1994) Pharmacological effects of Azadirachta indica(neem) leaf extract on the ECG and blood pressure of rat. Indian journal of physiology and Pharmacology, 38, 223–-5. PMID:7814089
  • Le Marchand, L. (2002) Cancer preventive effects of flavonoids—a review. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 56, 296–301. PMID: 12224601
  • Lee, D.Y., Li, H., Lim, H. J., Lee, H. J., Jeon, R., Ryu, J. H. (2012) Antiinflammatory activity of sulfur-containing compounds from garlic. Journal of medicinal food, 15, 992–9. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2012.2275
  • Lee, J. W., Ryu, H. W., Park, S. Y., Park, H. A., Kwon, O. K., Yuk, H. J., Shrestha, K. K., Park, M., Kim, J. H., Lee, S., Oh, S. R., Ahn, K. S. (2017) Protective effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaf extract against cigarette smoke- and lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation. Int J Mol Med, 40,1932-1940. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2017.3178
  • Mrudula, T., Suryanarayana, P., Srinivas, P. N., Reddy, G.B. (2007) Effect of curcumin on hyperglycemia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retina. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 361, 528–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.07.059
  • Nagpal, M., Sood, S. (2013) Role of curcumin in systematic and oral health: An overview. Journal of natural science, biology and medicine, 4, 3–7. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.107253
  • Naik, M. R., Bhattacharya, A., Behera, R., Agrawal, D., Dehury, S., Kumar, S. (2014) Study of anti-inflammatory effect of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica) on infected albino rats. Journal of Health Research and Reviews, 1, 66–69. https://doi.org/10.4103/2394-2010.153880
  • Othman, F. G. M., Peng, S. L., Rahmat, A., Basri, R., Pei, C. P. (2012) Effect of neem leaf extract (Azadirachta indica) on c-Myc oncogene expression in 4T1 breast cancer cells of BALB/c mice. Cell Journal (Yakhteh), 14, 53–60. PMID: 23626938
  • Padiya, R., Khatua, T. N., Bagul, P. K., Kuncha, M., Banerjee, S. K. (2011) Garlic improves insulin sensitivity and associated metabolic syndromes in fructose fed rats. Nutrition & metabolism, 8, 53–60. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-8-53
  • Patel, B. B., Majumdar, A. P. (2009) Synergistic role of curcumin with current therapeutics in colorectal cancer: minireview. Nutr Cancer,61, 842–846. https://doi.org/10.1080/01635580903285106
  • Patil, P., Patil, S., Mane, A., Verma, S. (2013) Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) root bark. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 3, 142–6. https://doi.org/10.5455/njppp.2013.3.134-138
  • Queiroz, A. C., Gagliardi, J. F., Forjaz, C. L., Rezk, C. C. (2009) Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure responses after resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res, Champaign, 23, 571–578. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318196b637
  • Rachel, W., Lily, S., and Kamal, A. (2013) Priority Medicines for Europe and the World. www.who.int/medicines/areas/priority_medicines/BP6_12Osteo.pdf
  • Rahmani, A. H., Alzohairy, M. A., Khan, M. A., Aly, S. M. (2014) Therapeutic implications of black seed and its constituent thymoquinone in the prevention of cancer through inactivation and activation of molecular pathways. EvidenceBased Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 18, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/724658
  • Rai, M., Jogee, P. S., Agarkar, G., dosSantos C. A. (2016) Anticancer activities of Withania somnifaria: Current research, formulations, and future perspectives. Pharm Biol, 54, 189–97. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2015.1027778
  • Rajeev, N., Sarita, K., Alka, P. (2014) Anticancer activity of Allium sativum (Bulb) polyphenolic compound.Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res, 29, 131–134. ISSN 0976 – 044X.
  • Reuland, D. J., Khademi, S., Castle, C. J., Irwin, D. C., McCord, J. M., Miller, B. F., Hamilton, K. L. (2013) Upregulation of phase II enzymes through phytochemical activation of Nrf2 protects cardiomyocytes against oxidant stress. Free Radic Biol Med, 56, 102–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.11.016
  • Riar, S. S., Devakuma, C., Ilavazhagam, G., Kain, A. K., Bardham, J. (1991) Antifertility activities of volatile fraction of Neem oil. Contraception, 44, 319–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-7824(91)90021-7
  • Sangita, C., Priyanka, C., Protapaditya, D., Sanjib, B. (2012) Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Effect of Ashwagandha: A Preliminary Study in vitro. Pharmacognosy Journal, 4, 47–49. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2012.29.7
  • Satarupa, P., Aparna, L. I., Priyanka, P. (2015) Anti-inflammatory activity of aquesh extract of Allium sativum leaves. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 8, 78–80. Online ISSN: 2455–3891
  • Satyavati, G. V., Raina, M. K., Sharma, M., editors. (1976) Medicinal Plants of India Volume 1. New Delhi: Indian Council of Medical Research.
  • Scarpignato, C., Lanas, A., Blandizzi, C., Lems, W.F., Hermann, M., Hunt, R. H., International, NSAID, Consensus, Group. (2015) Safe prescribing of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with osteoarthritis – An expert consensus addressing benefits as well as gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks. BMC Med, 13, 55. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0285-8
  • Setty Balakrishnan, A., Nathan, A. A., Kumar, M., Ramamoorthy, S., & Ramia Mothilal, S. K. (2017) Withania somnifera targets interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 in human prostate cancer progression. Prostate International, 5, 75–83. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.prnil.2017.03.002
  • Shah, N. C. (2014) Allium sativum (Garlic): The Folk and Modern uses- Part II. The Scitech Journal, 1, 31–36. ISSN 2348-2311
  • Sharma, A.K., Basu, I., Singh, S. (2017) Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha Root Extract in Subclinical Hypothyroid Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Altern Complement Med, 24, 243–248. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2017.0183
  • Shehzad, A., Lee, Y. S. (2010) Curcumin: Multiple molecular targets mediate multiple pharmacological actions. Drugs of the future, 35, 113–30. https://doi.org/10.4236/jct.2015.63029
  • Sogani, R. K., Katoch, K. (1981) Correlation of Serum cholesterol levels and incidence of myocardial infarction with dietary onion and garlic eating habits. J. Assoc. Physicians India, 29, 443–446. PMID: 7319999
  • Srinath, R. K., Shah, B., Varghese, C., Ramadoss, A. (2005) Responding to the threat of chronic diseases in India. Lancet, 366, 1744–1749. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67343-6.
  • Subapriya, R., Kumaraguruparan, R., Nagini, S. (2006) Expression of PCNA, cytokeratin, Bcl-2 and p53 during chemoprevention of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by ethanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract. Clinical Biochemistry, 39, 1080–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2006.06.013
  • Tiwari, V., Darmani, N. A., Yue, B. Y. J. T., Shukla D. (2010) In vitro antiviral activity of neem (Azardirachta indica L.) bark extract against herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. Phytotherapy Research, 24, 1132–1140. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.3085
  • Upadhyay, S. N., Dhawan, S., Talwar, G. P. (1993) Antifertility Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Oil in Male Rats by Single Intra-Vas Administration: An Alternate Approach to Vasectomy. Journal of Andrology, 14, 275–281.PMID: 8226307
  • Updhyay, S., Kaushi, C., Talwar, G. P. (1990) Antifertility effects of Neem oil by single intrauterine administration: A novel method of contraception. Proc The Royal Soc Lond, 242, 175–179. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1990.0121
  • Wang, J., Zhang, X., Lan, H., Wang, W. (2017) Effect of garlic supplement in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Food & nutrition research, 61, 1377571. https://doi.org/10.1080/16546628.2017.1377571
  • WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2014-2023, 2014.
  • World health organization (WHO) (2003) Fifth- sixth world health assembly, A56/18.
  • Yadav, B., Bajaj, A., Saxena, M., Saxena, A. K. (2010) In Vitro Anticancer Activity of the Root, Stem and Leaves of Withania somnifera against Various Human Cancer Cell Lines. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 72, 659–663. https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.78543
  • Yeh, G. Y., Davis, R.B., Phillips, R.S. (2006) Use of Complementary Therapies in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease. Am. J. Card, 98, 673–680. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.03.051
  • Zhi, L., Dong, L., Kong, D., Sun, B., Sun, Q., Grundy, D., Zhang, G., Rong, W. (2013) Curcumin acts via transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptors to inhibit gut nociception and reverses visceral hyperalgesia. Neurogastroenterol Motil, 25, e429–e440. https://doi.org/10.1111/nmo.12145